II. Fandom Participation

2.1 Time in the Fandom

Across numerous studies, we have asked furries three questions pertaining to the length of time they’ve been associated with the furry fandom: (1) how many years they’ve self-identified as a furry, (2) at what age did they first self-identify as a furry, and (3) at what age did they discover the furry community? The results of several of these studies are displayed in the table below.

Identification and Affiliation with the Furry Fandom Across Multiple Samples

Item W11 S11 W12 AC12 Range
How many years “furry” 6.6 7.0 7.7 8.6 6.6—8.6
Age first identified as “furry” 16.0 16.8 17.1 17.2 16.0—17.2
Age first found furry fandom 17.1 18.7 19.2 N/A 17.1—19.2
The first row shows that the average furry has been a furry for about 6 to 8 years. This is consistent with the second row, where furries say they began identifying as furries at the age of about 16-17, as well as with our prior findings🐾 that the average furries is in their early- to-mid-twenties. It’s also worth noting that the data suggest that there is a 1-3 year gap between the time when many furries discover the fandom/identify as a furry and the time when they become part of the furry community themselves. In focus groups and interviews, many furries report having felt “weird” and “alone” because of their furry interests before finally “stumbling upon” this community of like-minded individuals. We are particularly interested in the immediate and long-term benefits of this discovery on the well-being and self-esteem of those who, up to that point, may have felt stigmatized and alone in their interests, and it is likely to be a topic for future research.
2-1 years of fandom identification

When compared to members of other fandoms (see figure above), furries seem to be pretty comparable with regard to the number of years they’ve been a fan, with the exception of convention-going anime fans who, on average, have been in fans for almost 50% longer than furries. These findings can be explained in the figure below: on average, furries become furries in their mid-to-late teens, whereas people are far more likely to become anime fans in their early teenage years. This may be due, in part, to the fact that a growing amount of anime television programming is targeted toward a younger audience (e.g., Pokémon), whereas, for furries, the discovery of the fandom is often attributed to stumbling upon it on the internet. In stark contrast, fantasy sport fans, as a group, don’t seem to become interested until well into their 20s.🐾

2-1 age of fandom identification

2.2 Fandom Trajectory

In recent years, we’ve begun asking furries about their projected trajectory in the fandom. Furries are asked to draw, on the figure below, a line indicating how involved in the fandom they were at each of the points in time.

2-2 fandom trajectory base

The first uses of this measure were pen-and-paper, requiring our research assistants to use rulers to assign numbers to the level of involvement at each of the seven time points on a scale from 0 to 100, with 0 representing “No Involvement” and 100 representing “Very Involved.” From there, our sample was split into three groups, based on age (see figure below).🐾)

2-2 trajectory by age group

The first noteworthy characteristic of the figure is that most furries are currently highly involved in the fandom. Another is the steady increase in involvement leading up to the present time; most furries indicate some past interest in furry content, which has steadily increased to the present day, regardless of age group. Perhaps most interesting, however, is furries’ projection of future involvement: despite evidence strongly suggesting that many furries leave the fandom by their 30s 🐾, most furries nevertheless assume that they will maintain their current level of fandom involvement into the future.

We also divided the data based on the length of time participants had been in the fandom (see figure below). A similar pattern was found, with the exception that furries who have been in the fandom for more than 10 years were, unsurprisingly, more involved in the fandom 10 years ago than furries who have not.🐾

2-2 trajectory by time in fandom

On the graph below, we calculated the hypothesized trajectories for all 246 participants in one study. A straight, horizontal line indicates the belief that one’s involvement in the fandom will not change in the next year. An upward line indicates a belief that one’s involvement in the fandom will increase in the next year, while a downward line indicates a belief that one’s involvement in the fandom will decrease in the next year. With only a few exceptions, most furries indicated that they expected their involvement in the fandom to stay about the same or increase in the future.🐾

2-2 projected change in involvment

One of the most difficult samples to obtain is a sample of furries who have left the fandom. While we know that many furries do eventually leave the fandom, we have little about why they do. Given the difficulty of studying furries who have already left the fandom, the next best thing may be to identify furries who anticipate leaving the fandom. In fact, furries’ estimates about their anticipated future trajectory positively correlate with their presently-felt identification with the furry community. To put it another way: furries who plan to become less involved in the furry fandom are already identifying less with the furry community.(FF14)

In future studies (including our ongoing longitudinal study), we hope to test the accuracy of furries’ predictions about their future involvement and to see whether or not expectations of reduced future involvement predict leaving the fandom. To date, we’ve asked furries in this longitudinal study, over two periods with a year separating them, to indicate how positively or negatively they felt about the fandom on a scale from 0 to 100, with 0 indicating “Very Negative,” 100 indicating “Very Positive,” and 50 indicating “Neither Negative Nor Positive.” There are two competing hypotheses: on the one hand, the data above suggest that furries become more involved in the fandom and anticipate remaining involved in the fandom, which may mean that their attitude toward the furry fandom should become more positive over time. Moreover, psychological theories (e.g., social identity theory) suggest that we are biased to see our groups in a positive manner, which may also lead to more positive attitudes over time. On the other hand, as a person spends more time in the fandom, it may be the case that, like in relationships, they lose the “rose-colored glasses” that bias their perception, and become aware of less desirable aspects of the fandom, which may reduce their evaluation of the fandom over time.

When these competing hypotheses were tested, the data seemed to support the second one: furries in Wave 1 rated the fandom 78.8/100 on average, while the same furries rated the fandom nearly ten points lower, at 69.8/100 approximately one year later, a difference that was statistically significant.🐾 Put simply: furries were more likely to see the fandom less positively the more time they spent in it. However, it’s important to remember that furries in Wave 2 did not rate the fandom negative—just “less positive,” supporting the idea that furries “lose the rose-colored glasses,” rather than “starting to hate the fandom.” These findings may contribute to our understanding of why furries may eventually choose to leave the fandom, as having a decreasing opinion of the fandom may make furries less motivated to devote time and energy to it. Ultimately, future research on this subject is needed to test such mechanisms.

2.3 Fandom Activities

Given the diversity of the furry community, it is unsurprising that there are disagreements about what furries actually do. Based on the suggestions from furries gathered at conventions and fur meets, a list of 14 different furry-related activities was created. We asked participants to identify, on a 7-point scale, the extent to which they believed that each item was a significant part of what furries do (1 = completely disagree to 7 = completely agree). As the figure below illustrates, there are several activities which are nearly-universal aspects of the fandom (e.g., “Art,” “Community,” “Acceptance”).🐾 Contrary to popular stereotypes about the furry fandom, “Drama” and “Sex” were not considered focal or important activities in the furry fandom.

2-3 importance of activities

Data from another study similarly reveal that there are a broad range of interests within the furry fandom, some of which (e.g., playing games, science fiction) are more popular than others 🐾. We discuss the specifics of several of these subgroups in greater detail elsewhere (Greymuzzles,🐾 Fursuiters,🐾 Artists and Writers,🐾 Therians,🐾 Bronies.🐾)

2-3 prevalence of subgroup in fandom

2.4 Popular Artists/Websites

Most Popular Furry Websites and Content Creators

Rank Website Artist/Writer
1 Furaffinity Blotch
2 SoFurry Dark Natasha
3 e621 Wolfy-Nail
4 DeviantArt Jay Naylor
5 Inkbunny Zen
6 Fchan Red Rusker
7 Wikifur Tanidareal
8 Funday Pawpet Show Rukis
9 Bad Dragon Kyell Gold
10 F-List Narse
Furries were asked in an open-ended question to write their three favorite furry artists, writers, or websites.🐾 The result was a list of more than 1,100 unique websites and content creators, illustrating the broad range of interests and content in the furry fandom. The 10 most frequently-listed furry websites and content creators from this list is displayed in the table above. The majority of the above websites are art-related, making clear the importance of visual art to many furries. Many of the top sites and artists are also associated with adult-rated material. This is not to say, of course, that the furry fandom is purely sexual or a fetish.🐾 However, it does provide evidence that adult content is popular in the fandom, rather than something enjoyed by only a small minority of the fandom.

2.5 Furry Media Owned

In a series of studies we asked participants from different fandoms (furries, online anime fans, convention-going anime fans, and fantasy sport fans) about the fan-related media they owned. In addition to asking about the amount of each type of media owned, we also asked them to rate the media they owned on several dimensions. The results are displayed in the figures below, with differently-colored bars being statistically significantly different.🐾

2-5 fan content media owned
2-5 fan content print media owned

Much of the anime fandom is organized around studios and companies that put out animated television shows and movies. As such, it is unsurprising that anime fans, whether online or convention-going, own far more video-based content than either furries—whose content is largely produced by independent artists—or fantasy sport fans—whose interest in sports manifests as watching games and managing fantasy teams, not collecting and watching videos about sports. In contrast, print media, which includes magazines, books, and visual artwork, are much more prevalent in all three fandoms than videos. In this regard, convention-going anime fans stood out, suggesting that buying manga and artwork may be something more available to convention-going anime fans, who may have more expendable income than online anime fans. However, this would not account for the difference between convention-going anime fans and furries who, in this sample, were also convention-going. It is possible that the inclusion of “manga” in this category—something present in anime culture but which is largely absent in furry culture, accounts for the difference.

Furries and convention-going anime fans are the most likely to own content that is targeted toward children. Follow-up analyses revealed that, at least for convention-going anime fans, the younger a fan was when they got into the fandom, the more likely they are to own content targeted towards kids. The same was not true for furries. Future research may help to discern the reason for this finding.
2-5 owned content children targeted
Given the often violent nature of many anime shows (which often feature fighting robots, swords and gunplay, and fighting/martial arts), it follows that, relative to furry participants, anime fans are more likely to own violent content. Similarly, given that aggression is inherent in many sports (e.g., football, hockey), the finding that fantasy sport fans owned more violent content than furries is also unremarkable.
2-5 owned content violent
With regard to pornography, furries were significantly more likely than the other groups to own pornography-themed content, nearly always in the form of drawn artwork, often portraying one’s own fursona and/or other characters/fursonas. Interestingly, convention-going anime fans are more likely to own pornographic content than online anime fans, perhaps owing to the ability to commission artwork or to being older and more likely to live on one’s own (e.g., less parental scrutiny). Given the focus of fantasy sports on sports themselves and team management, it is unsurprising that very little content in this fandom would be deemed “pornographic.”
2-5 owned content pornographic

2.6 Related Fandom Interests

Given the diversity of the furry fandom, as illustrated by the number of different panels at furry conventions, as well as the potential for overlap between the furry fandom and related fandoms, we tested the extent to which furries were members of other fan groups or had an interest in other fan groups.

2-6 interest in other fandoms
In one study,🐾 we asked furries to indicate, on a 7-point scale, their interest in a number of related fandoms (1 = not at all to 7 = very much). As the figure below illustrates, there were a wide range of interests, though some (such as science fiction, video games, cartoons and webcomics) were more common than others (e.g., sports).

In another study🐾 we asked furries whether or not they identified as members other fan communities. Nearly half of furries (44.0%) were anime fans, and about 1 in 5 were bronies (fans of My Little Pony, 21.1%). Consistent with the findings above, only 10.5% of furries considered themselves to be sport fans.

2.7 Roleplaying

Given the nearly universal nature of fursonas,🐾 which involve creating a character to represent oneself, we were interested in the extent to which furries engaged in other role- playing activities. Specifically, we asked furries to indicate, on a 7-point scale (1 = not at all to 7 = all the time) how frequently they engaged in various role-playing activities. From the table below, it’s apparent that no one activity was distinctly popular or universally engaged in.🐾 That said, tabletop gaming, online RPGs, and role-playing in MUCKs and chatrooms seemed to be among the most popular roleplaying activities for furries.

2-7 frequency of role-playing activities

Follow-up analyses conducted found that the more strongly a person identifies as being furry, the more they engaged in roleplaying activities. More strongly identified furries were also more likely to say that they were easily transported into fictional narrative. Taken together, and in conjunction with other findings,🐾 furries, as a group, seem to more readily and more often immerse themselves in fiction. This may be due to the regularity with which interact with others as their fursonas, although the reverse is also possible: furries may find it natural to put themselves in the mind of their fursonas because they easily immerse themselves in fictional worlds.

2.8 Fursuits

In popular culture (and sometimes in the furry community itself), furries are often reduced to “fursuiting,” with furries being defined as people who wear these anthropomorphic animal suits. It should be noted that fursuits are, for many furries, prohibitively expensive and require intensive time and skill to create and, as such, there are many furries who, despite wishing to own a fursuit, are unable to. Moreover, there are many furries whose interest in furry content simply does not manifest itself as a desire to dress up in a fursuit. Despite this, furries are routinely conflated with fursuiters, a misconception we aimed to test empirically.

In one study,🐾 participants were asked whether they owned a full fursuit (defined as including a head, paws, torso and tail, where applicable), a partial fursuit (defined as owning at least two or three of the above items), or owned furry paraphernalia (ears, tail, paws, clothes, buttons, etc.). Specifically, they were asked, for each item, whether they owned it, did not yet own it (but intended to), did not own it, did not own it and probably would never own it, or whether they did not own it and did not want to own it. The results are displayed in the figures below.

2-8 frequency of full fursuit ownership
2-8 frequency of partial fursuit ownership

The results indicate that only about 10-15% of furries actually owns a fursuit (though the results also indicate that far more—nearly 50%—are interested in acquiring one). Additionally, only about 25% of furries owns a partial fursuit (with many more interested in owning a partial fursuit in the future). The data therefore dispel the common misconception that furries are all fursuiters.

2-8 frequency of furry paraphernalia ownership

The figure above also reveals that while most furries do not own a fursuit, most furries do, however, own wearable indicators of their furry identity.🐾 In a subsequent study, we assessed the popularity of specific pieces of furry paraphernalia.🐾 The most popular (and among most frequently worn) accoutrements were tails, though it’s worth noting that, even then, fewer than half of furries owned one. Those who owned fursuits wore them regularly (e.g., at conventions/events), which is consistent with the cost and resources required to acquire or create a fursuit.

Ownership of Different Furry-Themed Accouterments

Item % of furries who own

% of owners who regularly wear

Ears 27.3 62.6
Tail 48.1 78.0
Paws 25.9 50.2
Head 16.7 47.3
Fursona’s Clothing 34.3 82.2
Wings 1.9 26.3
Accessories 36.6 79.8
Partial Fursuit 18.5 72.4
Full Fursuit 13.0 85.4
Recently, we have begun studying the characteristics of furries who do own fursuits to determine whether they differ from furries who do not own fursuits. In one particularly extensive study,🐾 several new facts were discovered about fursuiters:
  • Fursuiters do not identify any more strongly as a furry, with the furry community, or with their fursonas than non-fursuiter furries do
  • Only 61% of fursuiters are men, despite the fact that men comprise more than 75% of the furry fandom. Put another way: furry women are more likely to fursuit than furry men.
  • Fursuiters are no more likely to be therian than non-fursuiters; they are also no more likely to feel non-human or to want to be completely non-human if they could
  • Fursuiters have been in the fandom for longer, on average, than non-fursuiters; they also have more expendable income
  • Fursuiters report better psychological well-being and a better-identified sense of self than non-fursuiters; they were no more likely to experience anxiety issues or to consider themselves to be immature, though they do report experiencing more discrimination for being a furry than non-suiters
  • Fursuiters like hugs just as much as non-fursuiters do. Moreover, they are less likely than non-suiters to say that they don’t get as many hugs as they’d like in their day-to-day life.

2.9 Origins of Furry Interests

People—whether they’re furries, the media, or inquisitive observers—often ask for an explanation of where furries come from. Specifically, they want to know how a person’s interest in furry (and their willingness to seek out the furry community) came to be. To answer this question, we’ve asked furries about the origins of their interests in a multitude of ways.

In one study, we asked whether furries’ interests were driven primarily by a feeling inside of them (often expressed by statements such as “I just always was a furry” or “I was a furry, I just didn’t know it”), or whether it was something they discovered based on external influence (often expressed by statements such as “A friend introduced me to it and I was hooked” or “I discovered furry on the internet and wanted to be a part of it”).🐾 Results found 45% of furries said it was both—a combination of something within them and a catalyzing exposure to the furry community. About 33% said it was solely an outside influence, while 22% said their interests came solely from within them (3% said it was neither).

Some furries were able to identify a specific instance, experience, or influence that sparked their furry interests. For these furries, we asked them to indicate, on a 7-point scale, the extent to which different factors influenced their furry interests (1 = not at all an influence to 7 = very important influence; see figure below.)🐾 While some factors were more common (e.g., the internet, a feeling inside, exposure to artwork) or far less common (e.g., having a pet, another fandom), it seems that there are a myriad of forces that spark furries’ interests, and that no one factor “causes” furries to be furries.

2-9 origins of furry interests

2.10 Furry Motivation

There are numerous reasons to participate in the furry community, and it’s doubtless that if you were to ask furries why they participate in the fandom, you would get dozens of explanations. Fandom researchers argue, however, that fandom fulfills a number of different psychological functions, and that fandoms with dramatically different content (e.g., sports vs. science fiction) may, nevertheless, fulfill similar functions: the need to belong, self-esteem, entertainment, attention, even a psychological need for sex. To test this hypothesis, we asked furries whether they agreed or disagreed that each of several different factors contributed to their motivation to participate in the furry community.🐾 The results are displayed in the figures below, with each figure representing a different psychological need, and the bars representing the percent of participants who agreed, to varying degrees, that fulfilling that need was an important component of their fandom participation. Figures with very high bars on the right side provide strong evidence that satisfying that particular need is a powerful motivator for most furries.

For the most part, furries agree that the furry fandom fulfills a need to belonging to a group larger than oneself, a very important social need.🐾 In fact, the figure at right suggests that belongingness is a stronger motivator of fandom participation for furries than for members of other fandoms.🐾
2-10 motivation - belongingness2-10 motivation - belongingness by fandom
Whether the fandom fulfills a need to appreciate beauty seems to be contentious; about 50% of furries agree that being a furry provides a sense of beauty and aesthetic to their lives (most likely in reference to the art, writing or other creative works of the fandom). The spike on the left side of the figure, however, suggests that 10-20% of furries disagree vehemently with this idea. This may represent therians or others for whom artwork is not the main draw of the community, but who are instead drawn to by the opportunity to be with like-minded individuals.🐾
2-10 motivation - beauty
Similarly, there is a lot of disagreement about whether the fandom’s relationship to their self-esteem is a motivator for their participation. For many furries, participation in a community seems to be motivated, in part, by its association with their self-esteem (presumably improving it). However, for almost as many furries the opposite is true—that participation in the furry community is not at all motivated by their self-esteem. It’s possible that the stigma associated with being a furry🐾 may make it difficult for the fandom to positively contribute to some furries’ self-esteem.🐾
2-10 motivation - self-esteem
Most furries agree that their fandom participation is motivated, at least in part, by the fact that it allows them the chance to escape the routine, possibly “boring” nature of day-to-day life.🐾.
2-10 motivation - escape
There is little disagreement from furries about the fact that the fandom’s recreational nature is a significant motivator for participation.🐾 These findings are comparable to other recreational fandoms, although furries are slightly less motivated by the fandoms entertainment value than anime fans.🐾.
Some stereotypes of furries claim that they are people who crave attention. The figure at right suggests, however, that this is not necessarily the case. Furries tend to disagree about whether or not getting /seeking attention is an important motivator of their furry interests, with nearly 30% of furries claiming quite vehemently that attention has nothing to do with why they are a furry, while 25% say just the opposite, that attention is an important part.🐾
While stereotypes often portray furries as people with a fetish, the data suggest otherwise; while one-quarter of the fandom states that sexual attraction has nothing to do with their furry interests, one-third of furries say that sexual attraction to furry content is a motivator of their participation.🐾 The figure at lower right illustrates that, compared to other fandoms, furries are more likely to be motivated by sex .🐾 However, two caveats should be noted: first, the importance of sex is below the midpoint of the scale (less than 4 out of 7), suggesting that “more important” is not the same as being “very important.” Second, and perhaps more importantly, sex, as a motivator, was far lower for furries than either belongingness or entertainment was, suggesting that, while certainly a motivator for some furries, it is not the primary motivating factor for most furries. This is also why it is factually incorrect to define the furry fandom as a “fetish”—were this the case, one would expect sex to be a primary motivator of furry interests.

Furries’ motivation to be a part of the furry fandom has also been studied within the context of an ongoing longitudinal study of furries, where the same furries are studied year after year to determine the factors that motivated–and continue to motivate–furries’ participation in the fandom and the decision of some to leave the fandom.🐾 The following questions were asked to several hundred furries in an open-ended fashion, and their results were coded and grouped to reveal patterns of common responses.

In this first figure, we see that many furries, when asked to report what the biggest factors underlying their entering and continuing to participate in the fandom were, provided reasons similar to those listed above: a sense of community, interest in the artwork, encouragement from friends, related fandoms, and an interest in anthropomorphism emerged as the most prevalent motivators. And, as described above, while sex and pornography were a motivator for some furries, they are certainly not the most prominent or central motivation for most furries.

In this figure below, we asked furries to indicate whether they had ever encountered something that made them consider leaving the furry fandom. The most prevalent reason provided involved the negative behavior of other furries in the fandom, including furries acting in socially inappropriate ways in public or online forums. “Drama” was also frequently cited as a source of problems, as was concern about the public’s perception of furries and whether they wanted to be associated with furries as a result. In a similar vein (and in conjunction with the idea that for the majority of furries, the fandom is not a fetish), many furries found themselves put off by sexual elements within the fandom, including being put off by those who focused excessively on sexual elements, those with unusual, extreme, or illegal sexual interests, or those who emphasized sexuality in the fandom in inappropriate places (e.g., public outings).


In a final set of questions, we asked participants whether they personally knew of any furries who had left the fandom; 47.6% of participants said that they did. For these participants, we asked them if they knew the reason why these people left the fandom. In line with the above question, the most prevalent reason for furries leaving the fandom seems to be conflict with other furries or negative interactions with others in the fandom. Also in a similar vein, “drama” was frequently associated with people’s chosen reason to leave. When it comes to actually leaving the fandom, however, we see that more mundane explanations are also commonly associated with furries leaving: job or time constraints, feeling a sense of distance from the furry fandom (commonly due to furries getting older and identifying less with younger members of the fandom), and simply losing interest in furry-themed content.




2.11 Furry as a Choice

We asked furries and non-furries whether they believed that someone has control over whether they are a furry or not, with the options of “yes,” “no” or “I don’t know.” In the figure below, furries were twice as likely as non-furries were to say that furry was not a choice.🐾 This may highlight a potential point of tension between furries and non-furries who may hold negative attitudes toward furries: to the extent that non-furries believe that a person who chooses to be furry could simply “stop being furry” to avoid social stigma, they may feel even more negatively about that person. Conversely, to the extent that a furry feels that they are unable to change who they are (i.e., what they find interesting), they may feel powerless against stigma or feel compelled to conceal their furry identity.🐾

2-11 belief that furry is a choice

2.12 Social Interaction

Given the importance of belongingness and community to the furry fandom,🐾 we felt it was important to study the ways in which the furry community maintained this sense of community—that is, the way they interacted with one another. After all, despite the relative rarity of furries (compared to the population in general) and the spatial characteristics of the fandom (international in scope), furries nevertheless maintain a strong, closely-knit community.

In one study, participants rated their agreement on a 7-point scale with a number of items (1 = completely disagree to 7 = completely agree) about to the nature of their interaction with the furry community.🐾 They indicated that the majority of their interactions with other furries were online (M = 5.55) as opposed to at local furmeets (M = 2.98) or conventions (M = 3.16). Additionally, many furries agreed that the majority of the furs they knew did not live in the same city as they did (M = 5.08).

The same participants were also asked a series of questions assessing the frequency with which they interacted with furries in a number of different contexts. About 25% of furries regularly attended a local furry meet-up, while 50% of furries regularly attended furry conventions, though the sample was obtained from a combined online and convention-going population.

2-12 frequency of social gatherings
2-12 frequency of furry cons

Evident from the tables below, the majority of furries’ interactions are online, either through instant messaging programs, or online forums.

Finally, we found evidence that approximately 40% of furries interacted with one another with at least some frequency on sites such as Second Life or IMVU, with such near-daily interactions being a part of the social lives of 15-20% of furries.

2-12 frequency of imvu second life

In sum, these data suggest that the furry fandom has a strong, vibrant presence on the internet and that, for many furries, online interaction is a crucial part of their interaction with the furry community.

2.13 Friends in the Fandom

On average, about half of a furry’s friends are furries themselves. This is comparable to members of other fandoms, although convention-going anime fans report having significantly more friends who are also anime fans. This may be due, in part, to the fact that the interests of anime fans are more mainstream than those of furries, making it easier to find friends in the fandom and publicly share one’s interest in anime.🐾

2-13 friends in fandom fandoms

Follow-up analyses suggest that furries and convention-going anime fans did not differ in the number of friends that they had (and, indeed, both groups reported having significantly more friends than online anime fans or fantasy sport fans). As such, the difference in proportion of friends who are fans between the two groups is driven by the fact that convention-going anime fans have more anime fan friends, not by simply having fewer friends.